DRUG ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF BTUSS-D®
Issued for Doctor’s convenience
To be used by Hospital, Laboratory & Registered Medical Practitioner
Each 5ml contains :-
PHARMACOKINETICS FACTS & ETHICS >>>
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug. It is one of the active ingredients in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines. DXM is also used recreationally. When exceeding label-specified maximum dosages, dextromethorphan acts as a dissociative hallucinogen. Its mechanism of action is via multiple effects, including actions as a nonselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and a sigma-1 receptor agonist.
The primary use of dextromethorphan is as a cough suppressant, for the temporary relief of cough caused by minor throat and bronchial irritation (such as commonly accompanies the flu and common cold), as well as those resulting from inhaled particle irritants.
Dextromethorphan has been shown to be effective in treating opioid withdrawal.
Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, and to increase blood pressure.
Phenylephrine is used as a decongestant sold as an oral medicine or as a nasal spray. It is a common ingredient in over-the-counter decongestants. Other decongestants include xylometazoline (Brand name: XYLUVER)
Oral phenylephrine is extensively metabolized by monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that is present on the outside of cells, throughout the body. Compared to intravenous pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine has a reduced and variable bioavailability; only up to 38%. Phenylephrine is a sympathomimetic drug, which means that it mimics the actions of epinephrine (commonly known as adrenaline) or norepinephrine. Phenylephrine selectively binds to alpha receptors which cause blood vessels to constrict. Phenylephrine may cause minor side effects such as headache, reflex bradycardia, excitability, restlessness and cardiac arrhythmias.
Phenylephrine is used as an alternative for pseudoephedrine in decongestant medicines due to pseudoephedrine’s use in the illicit manufacture of methamphetamine. Its efficacy as an oral decongestant has been questioned, with multiple studies not being able to come to an agreement. Whereas pseudoephedrine causes both vasoconstriction and increase of mucociliary clearance through its nonspecific adrenergic activity, phenylephrine’s selective α-adrenergic agonism causes vasoconstriction alone, creating a difference in their methods of action.
As a nasal spray, phenylephrine is available in 1% and 0.5% concentrations. It may cause rebound congestion, similar to XYLUVER.
Hemorrhoids are caused by swollen veins in the rectal area. Phenylephrine can be used topically to prevent symptoms of hemorrhoids. Since phenylephrine is a vasoconstrictor, the blood vessels are narrowed, reducing the pain associated with hemorrhoids. Products for treatment may also include substances that will form a protective barrier over the inflammed area, resulting in less pain when feces is passed.
Phenylephrine is used as an eye drop to dilate the pupil to facilitate visualization of the retina. It is often used in combination with tropicamide as a synergist when tropicamide alone is not sufficient. Narrow-angle glaucoma is a contraindication to phenylephrine use. As a mydriatic, it is available in 2.5% and 10% minims. Phenylephrine eye drops are applied to the eye after a topical anestheic is applied.
Cetirizine is a second-generation antihistamine used in the treatment of hay fever, allergies, angioedema, andurticaria. It is a major metabolite of hydroxyzine, and a racemic selective H1 receptor antagonist.
Second-generation antihistamines like Cetirizine are less able to cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore have diminished effects on the central nervous system compared to first-generation drugs: for instance they are less likely to induce drowsiness or to interfere with memory formation.
Cetirizine’s primary indication is for allergies. Because the symptoms of coughing in these conditions are caused by histamine acting on the H1 receptor, blocking those receptors temporarily relieves those symptoms.
Cetirizine is also commonly prescribed to treat acute and (in particular cases) chronic urticaria, more efficiently than any other second-generation antihistamine. It is preferred over diphenhydramine in many countries because, while being as effective as it for treating hives-related skin diseases, cetirizine does not affect the regular functioning of the brain.
For relief of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation.
DOSAGE >>> 10ml twice a day (Preferably not during working time) or As directed by Physician
Source : Wikipedia (Dextromethorphan / Phenylephrine / Cetirizine)
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