DRUG ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF SARPILIN-B®
Issued for Doctor’s convenience
To be used by Hospital, Laboratory & Registered Medical Practitioner
Vitamin B1 Mono—————————5 mg
Vitamin B2———————————-5 mg
Vitamin B6——————————–1.5 mg
Vitamin B12——————————–5 mcg
Calcium Pantothenate——————–7.5 mg
Vitamin B1 Hcl—————————–1.5 mg
Vitamin B2 phosphate———————1.5 mg
Vitamin B6———————————1.5 mg
Vitamin B12———————————1 mcg
PHARMACOKINETICS FACTS & ETHICS >>>
Silymarin is a unique flavonoid complex—containing silybin, silydianin, and silychrisin—that is derived from the milk thistle plant. These unique phytochemicals from the milk thistle have been the subject of decades of research into their beneficial properties.
Milk thistle’s common name comes from the white markings on the leaves, its milky white sap, and its traditional use by nursing mothers to increase milk. But it is best known for its use as a liver protectant and decongestant, which can be traced to the Greeks and Pliny the Elder (23-79AD), who wrote that it was excellent for “carrying off bile.” The famous English herbalist Culpepper (1616-1654) used milk thistle to cleanse the liver and spleen, and to treat jaundice and gallstones.1
In the U.S., the Eclectics—a prominent group of American doctors who practiced during the 20th century—used it for liver problems, and to treat varicose veins, menstrual problems, and kidney disorders. The plant was also cultivated as a food, providing leaves for salad, seeds for a coffee-like drink, and flowers, which were eaten as artichokes are today.1
In 1968, a group of German scientists discovered the active flavonoid complex silymarin, which provides milk thistle’s medicinal benefits.
Since then, hundreds of studies have been done on silymarin, and it is approved in the German Commission E Monographs (the most accurate information available on the safety and efficacy of herbs) as a supportive treatment for inflammatory liver conditions such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, and fatty infiltration caused by alcohol and other toxins.
Silymarin is used to:
- Regenerate liver cells damaged by alcohol or drugs
- Decongest the liver (A liver decongestant stimulates bile flow through the liver and gallbladder, thus reducing stagnation and preventing gallstone formation and bile-induced liver damage.)
- Increase the survival rate of patients with cirrhosis4
- Complement the treatment of viral hepatitis5
- Protect against industrial poisons, such as carbon tetracholoride (a colorless gas that leaks into air, water and soil near manufacturing and waste sites)6
- Protect the liver against pharmaceuticals that stress the liver, such as acetaminophen and tetracycline1
- Antidote and prevent poisoning from the death cap mushroom, Amanita phalloides
How does silymarin work?
- As an antioxidant, silymarin scavenges for free radicals that can damage cells exposed to toxins. Silymarin has been said to be at least ten times more potent in antioxidant activity than vitamin E.101112
- It increases glutathione in the liver by more than 35% in healthy subjects and by more than 50% in rats.13 Glutathione is responsible for detoxifying a wide range of hormones, drugs, and chemicals. High levels of glutathione in the liver increases its capacity for detoxification.
- Silymarin also increases the level of the important antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase in cell cultures.14
- It stimulates protein synthesis in the liver, which results in an increase in the production of new liver cells to replace the damaged ones.15
- Silymarin inhibits the synthesis of leukotrienes (mediators of inflammation, which can result in psoriasis, among other things).
As we’ve seen, silymarin has proved to be successful in treating alcohol-related liver disease. In one study, researchers assessed the benefits of milk thistle extract on 170 patients, 91 of them alcoholics with liver cirrhosis. Subjects received 140 mg silymarin three times a day for 41 months. The four-year survival rate was 58 percent in the silymarin group and 39 percent in the placebo group. The reduced death rate among those taking silymarin was most pronounced in the alcoholic cirrhosis subgroup. There were no side effects from silymarin.4
This study is significant for several reasons. Since there were no side effects, the results support the idea that long-term treatment is beneficial and not likely to be harmful. These results also indicate that silymarin may be particularly effective for patients with alcohol-induced liver damage.
Effective in fighting several cancers
Although German scientists first discovered the protective effects of silymarin on liver function in the late 1960s, its impressive cancer-fighting properties were just discovered in the last decade. While it is not surprising that an antioxidant like silymarin would have anti-cancer effects, the molecular effects of silymarin that give it powerful anti-cancer properties have amazed even the scientific community. In the last few years, researchers have begun to discover exactly why silymarin has such broad anti-cancer properties.
Among the most promising cancer fighting strategies that researchers are trying to develop are angiogenesis inhibitors (which stop the proliferation of blood vessels that feed tumors), cell cycle regulators, and selective promoters of cancer cell death. Amazingly, silymarin has been shown to possess all of these abilities. A review of research into silymarin’s effects on prostate cancer concluded that silymarin has a huge potential to interfere with many molecular events involved in cancer cell growth, progression, and angiogenesis. One study done in August 2008 indicated that silymarin may inhibit metastasis in prostate cancer. 31 Another study done in September 2008 identified the strong efficacy of silymarin in prostate cancer prevention and intervention, as reported in previous studies.32
Because of this you would expect silymarin to have activity against a broad range of cancer types, and an examination of the literature shows that silymarin has impressive effects against prostate18, colon19, ovarian20, skin21, lung22, breast23, and cervical cancers24 in preliminary studies. In the cases of prostate and ovarian cancer, human clinical trials are currently underway both in the USA and Europe.
Offers hope for the prevention of cancer … and as an adjunct treatment
The novel and unique ways that silymarin fights cancer means that it may offer hope not only for the prevention of cancer, but also for the treatment of cancer, both alone and when combined with existing cancer drugs. This is because silymarin has shown direct tumor killing properties of its own, and is also synergistically effective with two popular chemotherapy agents, doxorubicin and cisplatin.252617
Why isn’t silymarin being hailed as a cancer drug in the medical world?
With such an impressive list of accomplishments you would expect silymarin to be quickly developed as a broad-spectrum cancer fighter. But as a natural, herbal product that has been used for more than 30 years primarily for liver problems, it has a strike against it.
Unfortunately, interest in researching silymarin’s efficacy at fighting cancer in humans has only been promoted by a small group of dedicated scientists who have recognized silymarin’s novel, powerful, and multiple cancer fighting properties. One can only hope that silymarin’s natural origins don’t condemn it to becoming only a scientific curiosity.
Silybin/Phospholipid Complex (Silyphos)
Two recent innovations in silymarin supplementation have greatly enhanced the benefits we can obtain from silymarin. The first was the discovery that silybin, one of several flavonoids found in the “silymarin fraction” extracted from milk thistle, is the most potent constituent. Because of this, techniques were developed to further purify silymarin to obtain pure silybin. Because silybin is now recognized as the active flavonoid in silymarin, most recent research has utilized pure silybin rather than silymarin itself.
One of the inherent problems with oral silymarin or silybin supplementation is its very poor absorption. Recently, a new complex of silybin and natural phospholipids was developed. This improved product is known by the name of Silyphos. By complexing silybin with phospholipids, scientists were able to make silybin into a much more soluble and better-absorbed form.
This silybin/phospholipid complex (Silyphos) was found to have significantly improved bioavailability, up to ten times better absorption, and greater effectiveness.272829 This dramatically enhances the benefits of silybin, because typical silymarin extracts and silybin are very poorly utilized when taken orally.
How safe is silymarin?
Milk thistle has been safely used as a medicinal herb for centuries. Although its effects can be quite dramatic, it is gentle and well tolerated.
Speak with your health care professional if you have cancer and are on chemotherapy drugs, before taking this or any other herb. Studies show that some chemotherapy drugs have a synergistic effect with silymarin and may increase the drug’s effects. If you’re taking drugs known to cause liver damage (like acetaminophen), silymarin may help repair and prevent future damage.
An antidote to environmental toxins
James Duke, Ph.D., a leading authority on healing herbs, says “Even if you don’t have liver damage or liver disease, milk thistle helps improve liver function by helping the liver remove toxins from your body.”30 In this modern world filled with environmental and chemical toxins, silymarin is an antioxidant you just might want to add to your nutritional supplement regimen.
While milk thistle and silymarin have had decades of very positive results for protecting the liver, recent studies into silybin’s remarkable anti-cancer properties have provided even more compelling reasons to consider supplementation. And now, with the advent of the more potent and much better utilized Silybin/Phospholipid Complex (Silyphos), the amazing benefits contained within the milk thistle are available to everyone.
Some Other Notable benefits :-
Acta Med Iran. 2013 Sep. The role of milk thistle extract in breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) apoptosis with doxorubicin. Based on silymarin’s unique characteristics, its application in chemotherapy combined with doxorubicin can be effective to enhance the efficacy together with a reduced toxicity on normal tissues. The present study focus on evaluate the efficacy of silymarin in combination with doxorubicin, on viability and apoptosis of estrogen-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). After being cultured, MCF-7 cells were divided into 8 groups and treated as follows: 1st group received 75 μg silymarin, groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated with 10, 25, and 50 nM doxorubicin, respectively, and groups 5, 6, and 7 respectively received 10, 25, and 50 nM doxorubicin as well as 75 μg silymarin. Viability percentage and apoptosis of the cells were assessed with Trypan Blue staining after 16, 24, and 48 hours. Silymarin has a synergistic effect on the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin. Use of silymarin in combination with doxorubicin can be more effective on the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin and decreases its dose-limiting side effects.
Anti-angiogenic effect of silymarin on colon cancer LoVo cell line.
J Surg Res. 2003.
This study was designed to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect of silymarin and its major pure component silibinin, and also thalidomide (TH). A modified in vitro system using a coculture of endothelial and colon cancer cell lines was adopted in this study. Silymarin / silibinin has a strong anti-angiogenesis effect on the colon cancer cell line, and this might provide an alternative treatment option for anti-cancer treatment.
The efficacy of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) in the treatment of type II diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.
Phytother Res. 2006. Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR Tehran, Iran.
Oxidative stresses are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications which may either cause direct pancreatic beta-cell damage or lead to metabolic abnormalities that can induce or aggravate diabetes. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the herbal medicine, milk thistle seed extract (silymarin), which is known to have antioxidant properties on the glycemic profile in diabetic patients. A 4-month randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted in 51 type II diabetic patients in two well-matched groups. The first group received a silymarin (200 mg) tablet 3 times a day plus conventional therapy. The second group (n = 26) received the same therapy but a placebo tablet instead of silymarin. The patients were visited monthly and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1)c), fasting blood glucose (FBS), insulin, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL, triglyceride, SGOT and SGPT levels were determined at the beginning and the end of the study. The results showed a significant decrease in HbA(1)c, FBS, total cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride SGOT and SGPT levels in silymarin treated patients compared with placebo as well as with values at the beginning of the study in each group. In conclusion, silymarin treatment in type II diabetic patients for 4 months has a beneficial effect on improving the glycemic profile.
Caspian J Intern Med. Winter 2014. Silymarin in treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: A randomized clinical trial. The patients who had taken silymarin experienced more notable fall in hepatic enzymes.
Clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of BIO-C (micronized Silymarin) as a galactagogue.
Acta Biomed. 2008; Di Pierro F, Callegari A, Carotenuto D, Tapia MM. Velleja Research, Pontenure, PC, Italy.
The authors have previously reported the use of Silymarin (a Silybum marianum standardized extract) as a promoter of milk production in cows. Due to the important psychological impact of hypogalactia in women after delivery, we evaluated the role of silymarin as a safe and effective galactogogue for human species. 50 healthy women during lactation were enrolled in order to verify the galactogogue role played by an oral treatment with micronized Silymarin (420 mg/day) in comparison with an undistinguishable placebo product. Women orally treated for 63 days with silymarin showed a clear galactagogue role for the product with an increase of 85% of the daily milk production (placebo: +32%). No drop out, nor unwanted effects were reported in both groups. Compliance and tolerability were also very good. Silymarin may be considered as a safe and effective herbal product that can be orally administered in order to improve the daily milk production in healthy women after delivery, without affecting milk quality.
A flavonoid antioxidant, silymarin, inhibits activation of erbB1 signaling and induces cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, G1 arrest, and anticarcinogenic effects in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells.
Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.
Cancer Res. 1998.
Recently, we showed that silymarin possesses exceptionally high to complete protective effects against experimentally induced tumor formation. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (erbB1) and other members of the erbB family have been shown to play important roles in human prostate cancer, efforts should be directed to identify inhibitors of this pathway for PCA intervention. In this study, we assessed whether silymarin inhibits erbB1 activation and associated downstream events and modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins and progression, leading to growth inhibition of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells. Treatment of serum-starved cells with silymarin resulted in a significant inhibition of transforming growth factor alpha-mediated activation of erbB1 but no change in its protein levels. Silymarin treatment of cells also resulted in a significant decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation of an immediate downstream target of erbB1, the adapter protein SHC, together with a decrease in its binding to erbB1. Taken together, these results suggest that silymarin may exert a strong anticarcinogenic effect against prostate cancer and that this effect is likely to involve impairment of erbB1-SHC-mediated signaling pathway, induction of CDKIs, and a resultant G1 arrest.
Silymarin prevents UV irradiation-induced A375-S2 cell apoptosis.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2004.
Silymarin, a plant flavonoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) was first evaluated for its protective effect against UV irradiation-induced apoptosis in human malignant melanoma cells. Treatment with silymarin significantly inhibited UV irradiation-induced apoptosis. Activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in UV-irradiated cells were effectively reduced by silymarin in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that the inhibitory effect of silymarin is exerted by blockage of the caspase/ICAD pathway after increased expression of Bcl-x(L) protein and activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway.
I have read positive research regarding topical silymarin for skin cancer. I have only come across tinctures and tablets. How does one apply it topically. Can you specifically purchase topical silymarin cream?
We did a google search in November 2010 and could only find a cream that had silymarin with MSM. We are not sure how well a silymarin tincture is absorbed through the skin or how effective it would be.
Silymarin Research review
Phenolics-rich extracts from Silybum marianum and Prunella vulgaris reduce a high-sucrose diet induced oxidative stress in hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats.
Pharmacol Res. 2004.
The study tested the effects of phenolics-rich extracts from the plants Silybum marianum (silymarin) and Prunella vulgaris on blood and liver antioxidant status and lipoprotein metabolism. These results indicate that silymarin and Prunella vulgaris improve antioxidant status in blood and liver and positively affect plasma lipoprotein profile in an experimental model of dietary induced hypertriglyceridemia.
Silymarin retards the progression of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis in baboons.
J Clin Gastroenterol. 2003.
Section of Liver Disease & Nutrition, Bronx VA Medical Center & Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Bronx, New York
Hepatoprotective effects of silymarin in patients with alcoholic liver disease are controversial. For strict control, this was assessed in non-human primates. Twelve baboons were fed alcohol with or without silymarin for 3 years with a nutritionally adequate diet. RESULTS: Silymarin opposed the alcohol-induced oxidative stress and the rise in liver lipids and circulating ALT. Alcohol also increased hepatic collagen type I by 50% over the 3 years with a significant rise in mRNA for alpha1 (I) procollagen, both prevented by silymarin. There were corresponding morphologic changes: at 36 months, 2 of 6 animals fed alcohol had cirrhosis and 2 septal fibrosis, with perivenular fibrosis in 2, whereas with alcohol + silymarin, there was only 1 cirrhosis and 1 septal fibrosis, with perivenular fibrosis in 2, and virtually no lesions in the remaining 2. Silymarin retards the development of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis in baboons, consistent with several positive clinical trials. The negative outcome observed in other trials possibly reflects poor compliance resulting in irregular or low silymarin intake. Thus, in view of the innocuity of silymarin, it might be advisable in future clinical studies to insure the controlled administration of sufficient amounts of silymarin.
Silymarin inhibits TNF-alpha-induced expression of adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
FEBS Lett. 2003.
Silymarin is known to have an anti-atherosclerotic activity, but the mechanism responsible for it remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate a possible mechanism involved in the anti-atherosclerotic activity of silymarin. Silymarin inhibited THP-1 cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Silymarin also suppressed the TNF-alpha-induced protein and mRNA expression of adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, in HUVECs. Moreover, silymarin suppressed the TNF-alpha-induced DNA binding of NF-kappaB/Rel in HUVECs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that silymarin exerts an anti-atherosclerotic activity, at least in part, by inhibiting the expression of adhesion molecules.
Silymarin protects dopaminergic neurons against lipopolysaccharide-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglia activation.
Eur J Neurosci. 2002.
An inflammatory response in the central nervous system mediated by activation of microglia is a key event in the early stages of the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid derived from milk thistle that has anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and anti-carcinogenic effects. In this study, we first investigated the neuroprotective effect of silymarin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurotoxicity in mesencephalic mixed neuron-glia cultures. The results showed that silymarin significantly inhibited the LPS-induced activation of microglia and the production of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide (NO), and reduced the damage to dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, the inhibitory mechanisms of silymarin on microglia activation were studied further. The production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was studied in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells as a model of microglia activation. Silymarin significantly reduced the LPS-induced nitrite, iNOS mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, LPS could induce the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase. The LPS-induced production of NO was inhibited by the selective p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. These results indicated that the p38 MAPK signaling pathway was involved in the LPS-induced NO production. However, the activation of p38 MAPK was not inhibited by silymarin. Nevertheless, silymarin could effectively reduce LPS-induced superoxide generation and nuclear factor kappaB activation. It suggests that the inhibitory effect of silymarin on microglia activation is mediated through the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation.
Treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid, prevents ultraviolet light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress in mouse skin.
Int J Oncol. 2002. Katiyar SK. University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.
It is well documented that ultraviolet (UV) light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress play an important role in the induction of skin cancers. Earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid from milk thistle, to mouse skin prevents photocarcinogenesis. To define the mechanism of prevention, we employed immunostaining, analytical assays and ELISA which revealed that topical treatment of silymarin (1 mg/cm2 skin area) to C3H/HeN mice inhibits UVB-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to contact sensitizer dinitrofluorobenzene. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of CHS by silymarin was found to be associated with the inhibition of infiltrating leukocytes, particularly CD11b+ cell type, and myeloperoxidase activity (50-71%). Silymarin treatment also resulted in significant reduction of UVB-induced immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 producing cells and its production. Topical treatment of silymarin also resulted in significant reduction of the number of UVB-induced H2O2 producing cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase expressing cells concomitant with decrease in H2O2 (58-65%) and nitric oxide (65-68%) production. Together, these data suggest that prevention of UVB-induced immuno-suppression and oxidative stress by silymarin may be associated with the prevention of photocarcinogenesis in mice. The data obtained from this study also suggest: i) phase-I clinical trial of silymarin in high skin cancer risk human population and ii) development of sunscreen containing silymarin as an antioxidant (chemopreventive agent) or silymarin can be supplemented in skin care products.
Long-term (12 months) treatment with an anti-oxidant drug (silymarin) is effective on hyperinsulinemia, exogenous insulin need and malondialdehyde levels in cirrhotic diabetic patients.
J Hepatol. 1997.
Several studies have demonstrated that diabetic patients with cirrhosis require insulin treatment because of insulin resistance. As chronic alcoholic liver damage is partly due to the lipoperoxidation of hepatic cell membranes, anti-oxidizing agents may be useful in treating or preventing damage due to free radicals. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether long-term treatment with silymarin is effective in reducing lipoperoxidation and insulin resistance in diabetic patients with cirrhosis. A 12-month open, controlled study was conducted in two well-matched groups of insulin-treated diabetics with alcoholic cirrhosis. One group received 600 mg silymarin per day plus standard therapy, while the control group (n=30) received standard therapy alone. The efficacy parameters, measured regularly during the study, included fasting blood glucose levels, mean daily blood glucose levels, daily glucosuria levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and malondialdehyde levels. There was a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose levels, mean daily blood glucose levels, daily glucosuria and HbA1c levels already after 4 months of treatment in the silymarin group. In addition, there was a significant decrease in fasting insulin levels and mean exogenous insulin requirements in the treated group, while the untreated group showed a significant increase in fasting insulin levels and a stabilized insulin need. These findings are consistent with the significant decrease in basal and glucagon-stimulated C-peptide levels in the treated group and the significant increase in both parameters in the control group. Another interesting finding was the significant decrease in malondialdehyde/levels observed in the treated group. These results show that treatment with silymarin may reduce the lipoperoxidation of cell membranes and insulin resistance, significantly decreasing endogenous insulin overproduction and the need for exogenous insulin administration.
Vitamin B1 :-
The top five health benefits of vitamin B1 are:
2. Cardiovascular functions: This vitamin is responsible for the production of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that relays messages to the muscles and nerves. A deficiency of vitamin B1 leads to a decrease in the neurotransmitter and causes irregular heartbeat. Severe deficiency can cause congestive heart failure.
4. Improves brain function: It ensures smooth functioning of the brain and helps improve memory and concentration. Vitamin B1 helps relieve stress and also helps strengthen the nerves. The vitamin is used to reduce the progression of multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, cirrhosis, and other infections.
Vitamin B2 :-
Vitamin B12 :-
Like all vitamins, B12 is an organic compound, made from carbons (as opposed to minerals, which are inorganic), and essential for our normal metabolic function and health. Also, like most vitamins, B12 plays a wide variety of roles in our metabolism. The short list of important effects B12 has on your health includes these:
- Vitamin B12 is essential for the manufacture of red blood cells; a deficiency leads to a characteristic kind of anemia
- Vitamin B12 is needed to support the normal function of nerve cells, and to manufacture myelin, the insulating material that surrounds some of our nerve cells and speeds neural transmission
- Vitamin B12 is required for the replication of DNA
Each of these effects is obviously quite important, but note the third one in particular. When B12 is deficient, our DNA cannot replicate normally – meaning we can’t generate new, healthy cells. As a result, vitamin B12 deficiency can mimic all of the effects of aging.
DOSAGE >>> Suspension: 20ml twice a day or As directed by Physician
Capsule: 1 capsule daily or As directed by Physician
Source : Smart Publications (Silymarin)
Newsmax.com (Vitamin B1 / Vitamin B2 / Vitamin B6)
The Dr. OZ Show (Vitamin B12)
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