SARPLAC® | Prebiotics & Probiotics Sachet/Capsule

sarplac

DRUG ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF SARPLAC®

 

 Issued for Doctor’s convenience

To be used by Hospital, Laboratory & Registered Medical Practitioner

COMPOSITION >>>

Improved with Increased Saccharomyces Boulardii

Each Sachet/Capsule contains :-

Lactobacillus Acidophillus————————–0.48 billion

Lactobacillus rhamnosus—————————-0.48 billion

Bifidobacterium longum—————————–0.48 billion

Bifidobacterium bifidum—————————–0.48 billion

Saccharomyces Boulardii—————————-0.60 billion

Streptococcus thermophilus————————-0.48 billion

Fructo oligo saccharides——————————-300 mg

 

SARPLAC® : Prebiotics & Probiotics Sachet/Capsule

SARPLAC® : Prebiotics & Probiotics Sachet/Capsule

 

PHARMACOKINETICS FACTS & ETHICS >>>

Lactobacillus Acidophilus :

Lactobacillus acidophilus ( New Latin ‘acid-loving milk-bacterium’) is a species of gram positive bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus.L. acidophilus is a homofermentative, microaerophilic species, fermenting sugars into lactic acid, and grows readily at rather low pH values (below pH 5.0) and has an optimum growth temperature of around 37 °C (99 °F). L. acidophilus occurs naturally in the human and animal gastrointestinal tract and mouth. Some strains of L. acidophilus may be considered to have probioticcharacteristics.

Antibiotics taken orally will kill beneficial, as well as harmful, bacteria, including L. acidophilus. After a therapy that includes antibiotics, patients are occasionally instructed to take an L. acidophilus treatment in order to recolonize the gastrointestinal tract. To that effect, L. acidophilus is often sold in health stores in pill or powder form as a nutritional supplement, as well as being available in many yogurts. A part of the claims in favor of such treatment refer to attaining a better digestion thanks to a recovered normal intestinal flora. L. acidophilus LA-5 produces bacteriocin CH5 that is both antibacterial and inhibitory against certain yeasts and molds and is effective against both Salmonella typhimuriumand Campylobacter jejuni. It has been shown to improve bowel regularity and has been shown to have a preventative effect against traveller’s diarrhea, as well as antibiotic-related bowel issues.

Because of its relation to gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), L. acidophilus LA-5 has been associated with positive effects on the immune system such as increased cytokine, phagocytic activity and antibody production, as well as phagocytosis of Salmonella, and L. acidophilus NCFM has even been shown to reduce incidence of symptoms of fever, cough and runny nose. Anti-inflammatory effects have also been observed in people consuming L. acidophilus NCFM. Additionally L. acidophilus LA-5 has shown to inhibit growth of breast cancer cells, and positive effects on chemotherapy patients. An improvement of lipid metabolism has also been linked to L. acidophilus LA-5.

L. acidophilus may produce vitamin K{(Mayo Clinic article/page about L.Acidophilus Copyright 2014} and lactase.

A study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition reported that yogurt containing L. acidophilus L1 has the potential to reduce risk for coronary heart diseaseby 6–10% by reducing serum cholesterol concentration.

 

Lactobacillus rhamnosus :

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a bacterium that was originally considered to be a subspecies of L. casei, but later genetic research found it to be a species of its own. Some strains of L. rhamnosus are being used as probiotics. The species is sometimes used in yogurt and other dairy products. Some studies have been done on its in vivo effects. While frequently considered a beneficial organism, L. rhamnosus has been discovered to be pathogenic in certain circumstances.

Medical research and use

While Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) is able to survive the acid and bile of the stomach and intestine and is claimed to colonize the digestive tract and to balance intestinal microflora, evidence suggests that Lactobacillus rhamnosus is likely a transient inhabitant, and not autochthonous. Regardless, it is considered a probiotic useful for treatment of various maladies, as it works on many levels. However, most of the molecular mechanisms are not known.

Diarrhea

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been shown beneficial in the prevention of rotavirus diarrhea in children. The prevention and treatment of various types of diarrhea has been shown both in children and in adults.

Respiratory tract infections

L. rhamnosus GG has also been associated with a reduction in the risk of respiratory tract infections in children.

Atopic dermatitis

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has also shown potential in treatment and primary prevention of atopic dermatitis, but the results of intervention trials have been mixed. A clinical trial with seven-year follow-up shows L. rhamnosus GG is useful in the prevention of atopic dermatitis in children at high risk of allergy.

Urogenital tract

The clinical health effects of L. rhamnosus GG have been widely studied. Both L. rhamnosus GG and L. rhamnosus GR-1 appear to protect the urogenital tract by excretingbiosurfactants to inhibit the adhesion of vaginal and urinary pathogens.

Intestinal tract permeability

L. rhamnosus has been found to reduce intestinal permeability in children who suffer from irritable bowel syndrome, and also it has been found to counter alcohol-related intestinal permeability.

Gastrointestinal carriage of VRE

In 2005, L. rhamnosus GG was first successfully used to treat gastrointestinal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) in renal patients.

Anxiety

Research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on August 29, 2011 reported this bacterium may have an effect on GABA neurotransmitter receptors. Mice that were fed L. rhamnosus had less anxiety and had different levels of a brain-chemical sensor and stress hormones.

Weight Loss

Research published in the British Journal of Nutrition in 2013 suggests that Lactobacillus rhamnosus may increase weight loss in women who are dieting. The research was initiated after several studies showed that the gut bacteria in obese individuals differs significantly from those in thin people. Women in the study lost nearly twice the weight that the placebo group lost. No difference was observed in men, however.

 

Bifidobacterium longum :

Bifidobacterium longum is a gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped bacterium present in the human gastrointestinal tract and one of the 32 species that belong to the genus Bifidobacterium. It is a micro-aerotolerant anaerobe and considered to be one of the earliest colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract of infants. When grown on general anaerobic medium, B. longum forms white, glossy colonies with a convex shape. While B. longum is not significantly present in the adult gastrointestinal tract, it is considered part of the gut flora and its production of lactic acid is believed to prevent growth of pathogenic organisms. B. longum is non-pathogenic and is often added to food products for its beneficial probiotic health effects.

B. longum colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract where it, along with other Bifidobacterium, represents up to 90% of the bacteria of an infant’s gastrointestinal tract. This number gradually drops to 3% in an adult’s gastrointestinal tract as other enteric bacteria such as Bacteroides and Eubacterium begin to dominate. Some strains of B. longumwere found to have high tolerance for gastric acid and bile, suggesting that these strains would be able to survive the gastrointestinal tract to colonize the lower small and largeintestines. The persistence of B. longum in the gut is attributed to the glycoprotein-binding fimbriae structures and bacterial polysaccharides, the latter of which possess strong electrostatic charges that aid in the adhesion of B. longum to intestinal endothelial cells. This adhesion is also enhanced by the fatty acids in the lipoteichoic acid of the B. longum cell wall.

As an important organism involved in the maintenance of the human gastrointestinal tract, B. longum is commonly used as a probiotic in various dairy products. Its presence has been associated with many health benefits including improving lactose tolerance and preventing diarrhea, food allergies, and colonization by pathogens. Some strains ofB. longum were demonstrated to have an antioxidative effect by inhibiting linoleic acid peroxidation, a process that results in the creation of lipid hydroperoxides that decompose into highly reactive radicals associated with aging and age-related diseases. Additionally, B. longum can scavenge free radicals, lowering a person’s chance ofatherosclerosis and stroke. The ability of B. longum to remove cholesterol from its environment by incorporating cholesterol into its membrane is thought to lower the serum cholesterol level in humans. B. longum may also bind and suppress resorption of bile acids, which also lowers serum cholesterol levels as bile salt replacement requires utilization of cholesterol within the body. B. longum supplementation was shown to significantly suppress tumor volume and incidence, although the exact mechanism is not clear. Since high colonic pH is thought to promote colorectal cancer, it is postulated that B. longum can inhibit colorectal cancer by producing bile acid and cholesterol metabolites that lower the intestinal pH.

Cancer treatment

As an anaerobe, B. longum is able to localize and proliferate in the hypoxic regions of solid tumors when injected intravenously. It is proposed that by introducing genes into B. longum that generate anti-tumor enzymes, B. longum will be able to act as the vector in cancer gene therapy. B. longum is an ideal vector as its actions should remain tumor-specific, it is non-pathogenic, and it generally easily killed by antibiotics unlike other potential anaerobic vectors such as Salmonella or Clostridium.

Immune system regulation

Several studies indicate that B. longum has a positive effect on modulating the immune system. A strain of B. longum has been shown to reduce the symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis, while other strains have been shown to reduce the symptoms of influenza infection and fever in elderly persons. As well, the use of B. longum was shown to shorten the duration and minimize the severity of symptoms associated with the common cold with a similar effect to that of neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza.

Sensitive skin treatmen

When applied topically, B. longum lysate was shown to provide an anti-inflammatory effect, preventing problems associated with skin sensitivity and reinforcing skin barrier function.

Pancreatic necrosis

Pancreatic necrosis if left untreated has an almost 100 percent fatality rate due to bacterial translocation. Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis has been found to have a wide spectrum of coverage against pathogenic organisms that translocate from the gastrointestinal tract thereby demonstrating therapeutic benefit in the management of pancreatic necrosis. The addition of other probiotic strains reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines and further suppressed bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine leading to a reduction in bacterial translocation.

 

 

Bifidobacterium bifidum :

Bifidobacterium bifidum is a bacterial species of the Bifidobacterium genus. B.bifidum is one of the most common probiotic bacteria that can be found in the body of mammals, including humans.

B.bifidum helps the gastrointestinal tract function better since it is part of the microflora. This reduces the chances of acute diarrhea and even helps fight E.coli infections. Long and short chains of simple sugars that can be found in the GI tract are broken down and absorbed by B.bifidum. Increasing the amount of B.bifidum in the body will also increase the immunity function such as lowering the severity of symptoms and decreasing the days infected with the common cold. Since B.bifidum can be found in the vagina, the bacteria can fight Candida and other yeast overgrowths if present.

 

 

 

Saccharomyces Boulardii :

Saccharomyces boulardii is a tropical strain of yeast first isolated from lychee and mangosteen fruit in 1923 by French scientist Henri Boulard. It is related to, but distinct from, Saccharomyces cerevisiae in several taxonomic, metabolic, and genetic properties.S. boulardiiis sometimes used as a probiotic with the purpose of introducing beneficial active cultures into the large and small intestine, as well as conferring protection against pathogenic microorganisms in the host.

There are numerous randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled studies showing the efficacy of S. boulardii in the treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal disorders.

Acute diarrhea

Two studies each showed a significant reduction in the symptoms of acute gastroenteritis in children, versus placebo, by measuring frequency of bowel movements and other criteria. Children over three months are recommended to take two doses of 250 mg a day (BID) for five days to treat acute diarrhea. Children under three months are recommended to take half a 250 mg capsule or sachet twice daily for five days.

A prospective placebo-controlled study found a significant reduction in symptoms of diarrhea in adults as well taking 250 mg of S. boulardii twice a day for five days or until symptoms are relieved.

Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection

Administration of two 500 mg doses per day of S. boulardii when given with one of two antibiotics (vancomycin or metronidazole) was found to significantly reduce the rate of recurrent Clostridium difficile (pseudomembranous colitis) infection. No significant benefit was found for prevention of an initial episode of Clostridium difficile-associated disease.

Irritable bowel syndrome

A prospective placebo-controlled study found patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) had a significant reduction on the number and consistency of bowel movements.
Another study in 2011 did not find any change in bowel frequency.

Inflammatory bowel disease

Further benefits to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have been suggested in the prevention of relapse in Crohn’s disease patients currently in remission and benefits to ulcerative colitis patients currently presenting with moderate symptoms. The recommended dosage is three 250 mg[dubious ] capsules a day (TID).

Travelers’ diarrhea

Austrian vacationers taking S. boulardii traveling around the world were found to have significantly fewer occurrences of travelers’ diarrhea than those taking placebo.  Ameta-analysis of twelve studies from 1977 to 2005 investigating the efficacy of probiotics found them to be safe and effective for the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea, having a pooled relative risk of 0.85 with respect to placebo (between 0.79 and 0.91 with 95% confidence). Three of four studies concerning S. boulardii found it to be an effective treatment. The recommended dosage is one 250 mg capsule or sachet per day (QD).

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea

There is evidence for its use in the prophylactic (preventative) treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in adults. There is further evidence for its use to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children.

HIV/AIDS-associated diarrhea

S. boulardii has been shown to significantly increase the recovery rate of stage IV AIDS patients suffering from diarrhea versus placebo. On average, patients receiving S. boulardii gained weight while the placebo group lost weight over the 18 month trial. There were no reported adverse reaction observed in these immunocompromised patients.

Antitoxin effects

S. boulardii secretes a 54 kDa protease, in vivo. This protease has been shown to both degrade toxins A and B, secreted from Clostridium difficile, and inhibit their binding to receptors along the brush border. This leads to a reduction in the enterotoxinic and cytotoxic effects of C. difficile infection.

Antimicrobial effects

Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, two pathogenic bacteria often associated with acute infectious diarrhea, were shown to strongly adhere to mannose on the surface of S. boulardii via lectin receptors (adhesins). Once the invading microbe is bound to S. boulardii, it is prevented from attaching to the brush border; it is then eliminated from the body during the next bowel movement.

Trophic effects on enterocytes

The hypersecretion of water and electrolytes (including chloride ions), caused by cholera toxin during a Vibrio cholerae infection, can be reduced significantly with the introduction of S. boulardii. A 120 kDa protease secreted by S. boulardii has been observed to have an effect on enterocytes lining the large and small intestinal tract–inhibiting the stimulation of adenylate cyclase, which led to the reduction in enterocytic cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and chloride secretion.

During an E. coli infection, myosin light chain (MLC) is phosphorylated leading to the degradation of the tight junctions between intestinal mucosa enterocytes. S. boulardii has been shown to prevent this phosphorylation, leading to a reduction in mucosal permeability and thus a decrease in the translocation of the pathogenic bacteria.

Polyamines (spermidine and spermine) have been observed to be released from S. boulardii in the rat ileum. Polyamines have been theorized to stimulate the maturation and turnover of small intestine enterocytes.

Anti-inflammatory effects

Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a proinflammatory cytokine secreted during an E. coli infection in the gut. S. boulardii has been shown to decrease the secretion of IL-8 during an E. coliinfection; S. boulardii could have a protective effect in inflammatory bowel disease.[24] Saccharomyces boulardii may exhibit part of its anti-inflammatory potential through modulation of dendritic cell phenotype, function and migration by inhibition of their immune response to bacterial microbial surrogate antigens such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A recent study showed that culture of primary human myeloid dendritic cells CD1c+CD11c+CD123- DC (mDC) in the presence of Saccharomyces boulardii culture supernatant (active component molecular weight < 3kDa as evaluated by membrane partition chromatography) significantly reduced expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80 and the dendritic cell mobilization marker CC-chemokine receptor CCR7 (CD197) induced by the prototypical microbial antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, secretion key pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and IL-6 were notably reduced, while the secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10 did increase. Finally Saccharomyces boulardii supernatant inhibited the proliferation of naïve T-cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) with mDC.

Increased levels of disaccharidases

The trophic effect on enterocytes has been shown to increase levels of disaccharidases such as lactase, sucrase, maltase, glucoamylase, and N-aminopeptidase in the intestinal mucosa of humans and rats. This can lead to the increased breakdown of disaccharides into monosaccharides that can then be absorbed into the bloodstream via enterocytes. This can help in the treatment of diarrhoea, as the level of enzymatic activity has diminished and carbohydrate cannot be degraded and absorbed.

Increased immune response

S. boulardii induces the secretion of Immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the small intestine of the rat.

 

 

Streptococcus thermophilus :

Streptococcus thermophilus (previous name Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus) is a gram-positive bacteria and ahomofermentative facultative anaerobe, of the viridans group. It tests negative for cytochrome, oxidase and catalase, and positive foralpha-hemolytic activity. It is non-motile and does not form endospores.

It is also classified as a lactic acid bacterium. S. thermophilus is found in fermented milk products, and is generally used in the production of yogurt, alongside Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The two species are synergistic, and S. thermophilusprobably provides L. d. bulgaricus with folic acid and formic acid which it uses for purine synthesis.

Reduced-fat cheese

S. thermophilus helps make reduced-fat cheese with similar characteristics to regular, full-fat cheese. In the experiment, two different strains of bacteria are used to make reduced-fat cheddar cheese: a strain of Lactococcus lactis and a strain of S. thermophilus. These bacteria are chosen because they produce exopolysaccharide (EPS) which give reduced-fat cheese a similar texture and flavor as regular cheese. However, cheese made from L. lactis yielded a different type of cheese from S. thermophilus.

L. lactis produced cheese with higher moisture levels compared to other reduced-fat cheeses. On the other hand, S. thermophilus produced low moisture cheese and decreased the bitterness of cheese. It had been concluded that applying both L. lactis and S. thermophilus strains create higher quality reduced-fat cheese with similar characteristics to regular cheese.

Cancer

Chemotherapy often causes mucositis, severe inflammation of primarily the small intestines. Currently, there is no treatment to alleviate the symptoms of mucositis caused by chemotherapy. When rats were inflicted with mucositis by chemotherapy drugs, cells in the infected areas functioned more healthily and the tissue was less distressed. In her nutrition book, Jean Carper describes an experiment by Dr. Joseph A. Scimeca, in which commercially-available yogurt containing S. thermophilus and L. d. bulgaricus was fed to mice. After these mice were injected with cancer cells, the incidence of in the yogurt-fed mice was one-third less than expected.

Growth rate in children

S. thermophilus supplements have maintained a stable growth rate in children. Children who received S. thermophilus supplements had better growth during a 6-month period than children who did not receive the supplement.

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea

Strains of S. thermophilus have also reduced risks of AAD (antibiotic-associated diarrhea), an issue that results from taking antibiotics. Antibiotics can have the adverse effect of destroying beneficial bacteria and causing harmful bacteria to multiply, which invokes diarrhea. Adults who ate yogurt containing S. thermophilus while being treated with antibiotics had lower rates of diarrhea than the control group (12.4% vs. 23.7%)

 

 

Fructo oligo saccharides :

FOS has been a popular sweetner in Japan for many years, even before 1990, when the Japanese government installed a “Functionalized Food Study Committee” of 22 experts to start to regulate “special nutrition foods or functional foods” that contain the categories of fortified foods (e.g., vitamin-fortified wheat flour), and is now becoming increasingly popular in Western cultures for its prebiotic effects. FOS serves as a substrate for microflora in the large intestine, increasing the overall gastrointestinal tract (GI Tract) health. It has also been proposed as a supplement for treating yeast infections.

Several studies have found that FOS and inulin promote calcium absorption in both the animal and the human gut. The intestinal microflora in the lower gut can ferment FOS, which results in a reduced pH. Calcium is more soluble in acid, and, therefore, more of it comes out of food and is available to move from the gut into the bloodstream.

FOS can be considered a small dietary fibre with (like all types of fibre) low caloric value. The fermentation of FOS results in the production of gases and acids. The latter provide some energy to the body.

 

DOSAGE >>>  Sachet: 1 sachet daily mixed with lukewarm water or milk or As directed by Physician

                            Capsule: 1 capsule daily or As directed by Physician

 


Source : Wikipedia (Lactobacillus acidophilus / Lactobacillus rhamnosus / Bifidobacterium longumBifidobacterium bifidum / Saccharomyces boulardii / Saccharomyces thermophilus / F.O.S.)


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